Mothers' Breastfeeding Promotion and Protection Act of 1998
105th CONGRESS House of Representatives 2d Session H. R. 3531
To support breastfeeding by new mothers and encourage employers to
support workplace lactation programs, and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled,
SECTION 1: SHORT TITLE
This Act may be cited as the `New Mothers' Breastfeeding Promotion
and Protection Act of 1998'.
SECTION 2: FINDINGS
The Congress finds the following:
(1) Women with infants and toddlers are the fastest growing segment
of today's labor force.
(2) At least 50 percent of women who are employed when they become
pregnant return to the labor force by the time their children are 3
(3) The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends breastfeeding for
at least the first 12 months of a child's life. The Academy also
recommends that arrangements be made to provide expressed breastmilk if
mother and child must separate.
(4) Breastmilk contains all the nutrients a child needs for ideal
growth and development (including helpful antibodies, proteins, immune
cells, and growth factors that can only be found in breastmilk),
promotes closeness between mother and child, and is easy to digest.
(5) Breastmilk is the first line of immunization defense and enhances
the effectiveness of vaccines given to infants.
(6) Research studies show that children who are not breastfed have
higher rates of mortality, meningitis, some types of cancers, asthma and
other respiratory illnesses, bacterial and viral infections, diarrhoeal
diseases, ear infections, allergies, and obesity.
(7) Research studies have also shown that breastmilk and
breastfeeding have protective effects against the development of a
number of chronic diseases, including juvenile diabetes, lymphomas,
Crohn's disease, celiac disease, some chronic liver diseases, and
(8) A number of recent studies have shown that breastfed children
have higher IQs at all ages.
(9) Breastfeeding promotion and support are an integral part of
nutrition services provided by the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)
program, and has been shown to reduce costs. For example, in a recent
cost-benefit study in the State of Colorado, it was found that
exclusively breastfeeding a WIC infant saved $161 in the first 6 months
of life when compared to formula-fed infants. A Medicaid savings of $112
per infant was realized by this group while pharmacy costs were
approximately 50 percent lower.
(10) In 1997 the United States had one of the lowest breastfeeding
rates of all industrialized nations and one of the highest rates of
(11) Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the mother's risk of
breast and ovarian cancer, hip fractures, and osteoporosis.
(12) Breastfeeding releases a hormone in a woman's body that causes
her uterus to return to its normal size and shape more quickly, and
reduces blood loss after delivery.
(13) Although title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C.
2000e et seq.) was amended by the Pregnancy Discrimination Act in 1978
to prohibit discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or
related medical condition, courts have not interpreted this amendment to
include breastfeeding despite the intent of the Congress to include it.
(14) Women who wish to continue breastfeeding after returning to work
have relatively few needs: availability of suitable, dependable,
efficient breast pumps; a clean, convenient, safe, private, and
comfortable location to express milk at the worksite; the opportunity to
pump their breasts frequently enough to maintain their milk supply; and
an adequate place to temporarily store expressed milk.
(15) Many employers have seen positive results from facilitating
lactation programs in the workplace, including low absenteeism, high
high company loyalty, high employee morale, and lower health care
(16) Parental absenteeism due to infant illness is 3 times less among
the parents of breastfed children than those that are formula fed.
(17) Worksite programs that aim to improve infant health may also
bring about a reduction in parental absenteeism and health insurance
(18) Many women do not have available to them adequate facilities for
expressing milk at their workplace, and are forced to pump in restrooms
lacking privacy, comfort, and cleanliness. Many employees do not have
access to refrigeration or other adequate storage facilities for
(19) Many employers deny women the opportunity to breastfeed or
express milk. Some women have been discharged for requesting to
breastfeed or express milk during lunch and other regular breaks. Some
women have been harassed or discriminated against. Some women have had
their pay withheld or been taken off of shift work for indicating their
intention to express milk during the workday.
(20) There are numerous products on the market to assist a woman in
expressing milk, but not all such products are effective or efficient.
There have been many reports from physicians and lactation consultants
about breastfeeding failure due to the use of ineffective breast pumps.
SECTION 3: AMENDMENT TO TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964.
Section 701(k) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e(k))
(1) by inserting `breastfeeding,' after `childbirth', and
(2) by adding at the end the following: `For purposes of this
subsection, the term `breastfeeding' means the feeding of a child
directly from the breast or the expression of milk from the breast by a
SECTION 4: ALLOWANCE OF CREDIT FOR EMPLOYER EXPENSES FOR PROVIDING
APPROPRIATE ENVIRONMENT ON BUSINESS PREMISES FOR EMPLOYED MOTHERS TO
BREASTFEED OR EXPRESS MILK FOR THEIR CHILDREN.
(a) IN GENERAL- Subpart D of part IV of subchapter A of chapter 1 of
the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (relating to business related credits)
is amended by adding at the end the following new section:
`SEC. 45D. CREDIT FOR EMPLOYER EXPENSES INCURRED TO FACILITATE
EMPLOYED MOTHERS WHO BREASTFEED OR EXPRESS MILK FOR THEIR CHILDREN.
`(a) IN GENERAL- For purposes of section 38, the breastfeeding
promotion and support credit determined under this section for the
taxable year is an amount equal to 50 percent of the qualified
breastfeeding promotion and support expenditures of the taxpayer for
such taxable year.
`(b) DOLLAR LIMITATION- The credit allowable under subsection (a) for
any taxable year shall not exceed the product of--
`(1) $10,000, and
`(2) the number determined by dividing the average number of
full-time employees of the taxpayer during the preceding taxable year by
`(c) QUALIFIED BREASTFEEDING PROMOTION AND SUPPORT EXPENDITURE- For
purposes of this section--
`(1) IN GENERAL- The term `qualified breastfeeding promotion and
support expenditure' means any amount paid or incurred in connection
with a trade or business of the taxpayer--
`(A) for breast pumps and other equipment specially designed to
assist mothers who are employees of the taxpayer to breastfeed or
express milk for their children but only if such pumps and equipment
meet such standards (if any) prescribed by the Secretary of Health and
Human Services under section 5 of the New Mothers' Breastfeeding
Promotion and Protection Act of 1998, and
`(B) for consultation services to the taxpayer or employees of the
taxpayer relating to breastfeeding.
`(2) COSTS OF OTHER EXCLUSIVE USE PROPERTY INCLUDED- Such term
includes any amount paid or incurred for the acquisition or lease of
tangible personal property (not described in paragraph (1)(A)) which is
exclusively used by mothers who are employees of the taxpayer to
breastfeed or express milk for their children unless such property is
located in any residence of the taxpayer or any employee of the
`(d) RECAPTURE OF CREDIT-
`(1) IN GENERAL- If, during any taxable year, any property for which
a credit was allowed under this section is disposed of or otherwise
ceases to be used by the taxpayer as required by this section, then the
tax of the taxpayer under this chapter for such taxable year shall be
increased by an amount
equal to the recapture percentage of the aggregate decrease in the
credits allowed under section 38 for all prior taxable years which would
have resulted solely from reducing to zero any credit determined under
this section with respect to such property. The preceding sentence shall
not apply to property leased to the taxpayer.
`(2) RECAPTURE PERCENTAGE- For purposes of this subsection, the
recapture percentage shall be determined in accordance with the
|If the recapture event occurs in:
|Year 4 or thereafter
The references to years in the preceding table are references to the
consecutive taxable years beginning with the taxable year in which the
property is placed in service by the taxpayer as year 1.
`(3) CERTAIN RULES TO APPLY- Rules similar to the rules of paragraphs
(3) and (4), and subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (5), of section
50(a) shall apply for purposes of this subsection.
`(e) SPECIAL RULES- For purposes of this section--
`(1) AGGREGATION RULES- For purposes of subsection (b), all persons
which are treated as a single employer under subsection (a) or (b) of
section 52 shall be treated as a single taxpayer, and the dollar amount
contained in such subsection shall be allocated among such persons under
regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
`(2) REDUCTION IN BASIS- Rules similar to the rules of paragraphs (1)
and (2) of section 50(c), and section 1016(a)(19), shall apply with
respect to property for which a credit is determined under this section.
`(3) OTHER DEDUCTIONS AND CREDITS- No deduction or credit shall be
allowed under any other provision of this chapter with respect to any
expenditure for which a credit is determined under this section.'.
(b) Conforming Amendments-
(1) Section 38(b) of such Code is amended--
(A) by striking `plus' at the end of paragraph (11),
(B) by striking the period at the end of paragraph (12) and inserting
`, plus', and
(C) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:
`(13) the breastfeeding promotion and support credit determined under
(2) Subsection (d) of section 39 of such Code (relating to carryback
and carryforward of unused credits) is amended by adding at the end the
following new paragraph:
`(9) NO CARRYBACK OF SECTION 45D CREDIT BEFORE JANUARY 1, 1999- No
portion of the unused business credit for any taxable year which is
attributable to the credit determined under section 45D may be carried
back to a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1999.'.
(3) The table of sections for subpart D of part IV of subchapter A of
chapter 1 of such Code is amended by adding at the end the following new
`Sec. 45D. Credit for employer expenses incurred to facilitate
employed mothers who breastfeed or express milk for their children.'
(c) EFFECTIVE DATE- The amendments made by this section shall apply
to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1998.
SECTION 5: BREAST PUMPS
(a) PERFORMANCE STANDARDS- The Secretary of Health and Human Services
shall take such action as may be appropriate to put into effect a
performance standard for breast pumps irrespective of the class to which
the device has been classified under section 513 of the Federal Food,
Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 360c). In establishing such standard,
the Secretary shall identify those pumps appropriate for use on a
regular basis in a place of employment based on the efficiency and
effectiveness of the pump and on sanitation factcors related to communal
use. Action for a performance standard shall be taken within one year of
the date of the enactment of this Act.
(b) COMPLIANCE POLICY GUIDE- The Secretary of Health and Human
Services, acting through the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, shall issue
a compliance policy guide which will assure that women who want to
breastfeed a child are given full and complete information respecting
SECTION 6: FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE FOR NURSING MOTHERS' BREAKS.
(a) PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYEES-
(1) AMENDMENT- Section 102(a) of the Family and Medical Leave Act of
1993 (29 U.S.C. 2612(a)) is amended by adding at the end the following:
`(3) NURSING MOTHERS' BREAKS- A lactating mother who is entitled to
leave under paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B) shall, during the first 12-month
period for which the employee is entitled to such leave under paragraph
(2), be given up to one hour in each 8 hour work day in such period to
express milk for a child. The time may be taken in 2 one-half hour
periods or in 3 20 minute periods. For work shifts longer or shorter
than 8 hours proportional adjustments shall be made in the time given an
employee to express milk for a child. The time taken will not be charged
against the employee's entitlement to leave under paragraph (1). Unless
otherwise deemed to be compensable hours of work under applicable
Federal, State, or local law, employers are not required to compensate
employees for time under this paragraph. Such an employee shall give the
employee's employer notice, in accordance with subsection (e)(1), that
the employee will want the time provided by this paragraph.'.
(2) INTERMITTENT LEAVE- The first sentence of section 102(b) of the
Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (29 U.S.C. 2612(b)) is amended by
adding before the period the following: `or unless the leave is taken
under subsection (a)(3)'.
(3) REGULATIONS- Within 180 days of the date of the enactment of this
Act, the Secretary of Labor shall promulgate regulations for the
implementation of the amendment made by paragraph (1).
(b) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES-
(1) GENERAL RULE- Section 6382(a) of title 5, United States Code is
amended by adding at the end the following:
`(3) An employee who is a lactating mother who is entitled to leave
under paragraph (1)(A) or (1)B) shall, during the first 12-month period
for which the employee is entitled to such leave under paragraph (2), be
given up to one hour in each 8 hour work day in such period to express
milk for the child. The time may be taken in 2 one-half hour periods or
in 3 20 minute periods. For work shifts longer or shorter than 8 hours
proportional adjustments shall be made in the time given an employee to
express milk for a child. The time taken will not be charged against the
employee's entitlement to leave under paragraph (1). Unless otherwise
deemed to be compensable hours of work under applicable Federal law,
employees are not required to be compensated for time under this
paragraph. Such an employee shall give the employee's employer notice,
in accordance with subsection (e)(1), that the employee will want the
time provided by this paragraph.'.
(2) INTERMITTENT LEAVE- The first sentence of section 6382(b)(1) of
title 5, United States Code, is amended by adding before the period the
following: `or unless the leave is taken under subsection (a)(3)'.
(c) PURPOSE OF AMENDMENTS- The purpose of the amendments made by this
section is to establish a legal minimum for the amount of time that a
woman is entitled to express milk at the workplace. The amendments are
not intended to preclude an employer from voluntarily providing more
time for the employee to express milk or to diminish any rights the
woman would otherwise have pursuant to the employer's sick leave or
vacation policy or under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993.
SECTION 7: CAMPAIGN REGARDING BREASTFEEDING AND HEALTH OF INFANTS.
The Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting through the
Maternal and Child Health Bureau of the Health Resources and Services
Administration and in cooperation with the Secretary of Agriculture and
the heads of such other Federal agencies as the Secretary of Health and
Human Services determines to be appropriate, shall undertake a campaign
aimed at health professionals and the general public to promote the
benefits of breastfeeding for infants, mothers, and families. Activities
under the program shall include providing such education to public and
private health professionals who provide health services under Federal
programs (including health programs for Federal employees).
SECTION 8: INCREASED SUPPORT FOR BREASTFEEDING PROMOTION AND SUPPORT
ACTIVITIES UNDER THE WIC PROGRAM.
Section 17(h)(3) of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C.
1786(h)(3)) is amended by adding at the end the following:
`(H) Notwithstanding any provision in this subsection that requires a
State agency to fund breastfeeding promotion and support activities from
amounts made available for nutrition services and administration, a
State agency may use funds made available for food benefits under this
section (including savings from infant formula cost containment) for
such breastfeeding promotion and support activities.'.
Note: March 24, 1998
Mrs. MALONEY of New York (for herself, Mr. MCDERMOTT, Ms.
CHRISTIAN-GREEN, Mr. GEJDENSON, Mr. HILLIARD, Ms. KAPTUR, Mr. LANTOS,
Ms. LOFGREN, Mr. NADLER, Ms. NORTON, Mr. RUSH, Mrs. THURMAN, and Ms.
WOOLSEY) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the
Committee on Education and the Workforce, and in addition to the
Committees on Ways and Means, House Oversight, Government Reform and
Oversight, and Commerce, for a period to be subsequently determined by
the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall
within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned.