Report on Physical Punishment in the United States:
What Research Tells Us About Its Effects on Children

Elizabeth T. Gershoff, Ph.D., synthesized one hundred years of social science research, and found that physical punishment makes it more, not less, likely that children will be defiant and aggressive in the future; that physical punishment puts children at risk for mental health problems, and that children who are physically punished are at greater risk of serious injury and physical abuse.

Read the full report (PDF)

Attachment Parenting Research
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Children reflect the treatment they receive.

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